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Front Neurol. 2013 Jun 10;4:69. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2013.00069. eCollection 2013.

Hemorrhagic transformation: a review of the rate of hemorrhage in the major clinical trials of acute ischemic stroke.

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Cerebrovascular Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University , New York, NY , USA.


Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating disease that is often complicated by hemorrhagic transformation. While significant advances have been made over the past two decades with regard to emergent treatment of AIS, many of the therapeutic options are limited by an increased risk of hemorrhage. Here, we sought to review the rates of hemorrhagic transformation in the major clinical trials of AIS intervention. Since the reviewed clinical trials vary significantly in terms of study design, eligibility criteria, stroke severity, and baseline demographic data, direct comparisons between the various trials is not valid. Nevertheless, this review is intended to consolidate the pertinent data on hemorrhagic transformation in order to call attention to any patterns that may warrant further investigation.


acute ischemic stroke; fibrinolysis; hemorrhagic transformation; intracerebral hemorrhage; mechanical thrombectomy

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