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J Immunol. 2013 Jul 15;191(2):857-64. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1300790. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

TLR4 Signaling augments monocyte chemotaxis by regulating G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 translocation.

Author information

1
Department of Pathophysiology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Erratum in

  • J Immunol. 2013 Sep 1;191(5):2847.

Abstract

Monocytes are critical effector cells of the innate immune system that protect the host by migrating to inflammatory sites, differentiating to macrophages and dendritic cells, eliciting immune responses, and killing pathogenic microbes. MCP-1, also known as CCL2, plays an important role in monocyte activation and migration. The chemotactic function of MCP-1 is mediated by binding to the CCR2 receptor, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Desensitization of GPCR chemokine receptors is an important regulator of the intensity and duration of chemokine stimulation. GPCR kinases (GRKs) induce GPCR phosphorylation, and this leads to GPCR desensitization. Regulation of subcellular localization of GRKs is considered an important early regulatory mechanism of GRK function and subsequent GPCR desensitization. Chemokines and LPS are both present during Gram-negative bacterial infection, and LPS often synergistically exaggerates leukocyte migration in response to chemokines. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of LPS-TLR4 signaling on the regulation of monocyte chemotaxis. We demonstrate that LPS augments MCP-1-induced monocyte migration. We also show that LPS, through p38 MAPK signaling, induces phosphorylation of GRK2 at serine 670, which, in turn, suppresses GRK2 translocation to the membrane, thereby preventing GRK2-initiated internalization and desensitization of CCR2 in response to MCP-1. This results in enhanced monocyte migration. These findings reveal a novel function for TLR4 signaling in promoting innate immune cell migration.

PMID:
23772028
PMCID:
PMC3702632
DOI:
10.4049/jimmunol.1300790
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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