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Acta Med Indones. 2013 Apr;45(2):101-6.

Detection of carbapenemase encoding genes in Enterobacteriace, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumanii isolated from patients at Intensive Care Unit Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in 2011.

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Department of Microbiology, Fauclty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.



to determine the prevalence of carbapenemase encoding genes (blaIMP-1, blaVIM-2, blaKPC-2, blaOXA-48, and blaNDM-1) of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii isolated from the intensive care unit patients as pathogens, in Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital (ICU-RSCM) in 2011.


we examined the carbapenemase encoding genes in the clinical microbiology laboratory (LMK FKUI/RSCM). Duplex- and simplex PCR methods were conducted to detect the resistant genes.


we found 4 (5%) P. aeruginosa strains carry blaIMP-1 gene and all were isolated from sputum specimens. The prevalence of carbapenem resistant among Gram-negative bacilli isolated from ICU-RSCM, are Enterobacteriaceae 27.6%, P. aeruginosa 21.9%, and A. baumannii 50.5%. The New Delhi Metallo--lactamase encoding gene (blaNDM-1) was detected in 1 K. pneumonia isolated from sputum as well. The other genes, i.e. blaKPC-2, blaVIM-2, and blaOXA-48 were not found in any isolates. The absence of other genes indicated that other mechanisms may play a role in the occurrence of carbapenem resistance in pathogens isolated in ICU-RSCM.


this study confirmed that the prevalence of carbapenems resistant Gram-negative bacilli in ICU-RSCM in 2011 was high. The carbapenemase encoding genes, which were detected among the carbapenems resistant Gram-negative bacilli, were blaIMP-1 and blaNDM-1.

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