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J Adolesc Health. 2013 Oct;53(4):460-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.05.005. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

Cross-lagged associations between substance use-related media exposure and alcohol use during middle school.

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RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California. Electronic address:



This study examines the reciprocal longitudinal associations between alcohol or other drug (AOD)-related media exposure and alcohol use among middle school students, and explores whether these associations differ by ethnicity or gender.


The analytic sample is 7th grade students who were recruited from 16 California middle schools and surveyed in the spring semester of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, exposure to seven types of AOD-related media content (Internet videos, social networking sites, movies, television, magazine advertisements, songs, and video games) in the past 3 months, and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-lagged associations between media exposure and alcohol use.


Greater AOD-related media exposure in 7th grade was significantly associated with a higher probability of alcohol use in 8th grade (p = .02), and alcohol use in 7th grade was marginally associated with greater AOD-related media exposure in 8th grade (p = .07). These cross-lagged associations did not statistically differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white) or gender. Further, there was no evidence that certain types of media exposure were more strongly associated with alcohol use than others.


Results from this study suggest that AOD-related media effects and media selectively form a reciprocal, mutually influencing process that may escalate adolescent alcohol use over time. Addressing adolescents' exposure to AOD-related media content and its effects on behavior, such as through media literacy education, may hold promise for improving the efficacy of alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students.


Adolescent; Alcohol; Cross-lagged; Longitudinal; Media; Middle school

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