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J Pain. 2013 Oct;14(10):1066-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2013.04.010. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

Women with dysmenorrhea are hypersensitive to experimental deep muscle pain across the menstrual cycle.

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Wits Dial-a-bed Sleep Laboratory, Brain Function Research Group, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:


Primary dysmenorrhea is a common painful condition in women that recurs every month across the reproductive years. The recurrent nociceptive input into the central nervous system that occurs during menstruation each month in women with dysmenorrhea is hypothesized to lead to increased sensitivity to painful stimuli. We investigated whether women with primary dysmenorrhea are hyperalgesic to deep muscle pain induced by a cleanly nociceptive method of hypertonic saline injection. Pain stimulation was applied both within an area of referred menstrual pain (lower back) and at a remote site outside of referred menstrual pain (forearm) in 12 healthy women with severe dysmenorrhea and 9 healthy women without dysmenorrhea, at 3 phases of the menstrual cycle: menstruation and follicular and luteal phases. Women rated their pain severity on a 100-mm visual analog scale every 30 seconds after injection until the pain subsided. In both groups of women, menstrual cycle phase had no effect on the reported intensity and duration of muscle pain. However, women with dysmenorrhea had increased sensitivity to experimental muscle pain both at the site of referred pain and at a remote nonpainful site, as assessed by peak pain severity visual analog scale rating, area under the visual analog scale curve, and pain duration, compared to women without dysmenorrhea. These data show that women with severe primary dysmenorrhea, who experience monthly menstrual pain, are hyperalgesic to deep muscle pain compared to women without dysmenorrhea.


Our findings that dysmenorrheic women are hyperalgesic to a clinically relevant, deep muscle pain in areas within and outside of referred menstrual pain indicates lasting changes in pain sensitivity outside of the painful period during menstruation.


Dysmenorrhea; menstrual cycle; muscle hyperalgesia; pain sensitivity

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