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Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2013 Feb;27(1):73-83. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2013.03.007.

Diabetes, obesity and gut microbiota.

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1
Université catholique de Louvain, WELBIO (Walloon Excellence in Life sciences and BIOtechnology), Louvain Drug Research Institute, Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Av. E. Mounier, 73 Box B1.73.11, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.

Abstract

The gut microbiota composition has been associated with several hallmarks of metabolic syndrome (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis). Growing evidence suggests that gut microbes contribute to the onset of the low-grade inflammation characterising these metabolic disorders via mechanisms associated with gut barrier dysfunctions. Recently, enteroendocrine cells and the endocannabinoid system have been shown to control gut permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. Moreover, targeted nutritional interventions using non-digestible carbohydrates with prebiotic properties have shown promising results in pre-clinical studies in this context, although human intervention studies warrant further investigations. Thus, in this review, we discuss putative mechanisms linking gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes. These data underline the advantage of investigating and changing the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

PMID:
23768554
DOI:
10.1016/j.bpg.2013.03.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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