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Phys Rev Lett. 2013 May 31;110(22):227801. Epub 2013 May 31.

Electronically coarse-grained model for water.

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School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, United Kingdom.


We introduce an electronically coarse-grained description of water representing all long range, many-body electronic responses via an embedded quantum oscillator. Leading-order response coefficients and gas phase electrostatic moments are exactly reproduced. Molecular dynamics, using electronic path integral sampling, shows that this framework is sufficient for a realistic liquid to emerge naturally with transferability extending further to nonambient state points and to the free water surface. The model allows the strength of many-body dispersion and polarization to be adjusted independently and these are found to have significant effects on the condensed phase.

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