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J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Feb;94(3):445-52. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6265. Epub 2013 Jul 17.

Global transcriptome analysis of eukaryotic genes affected by gromwell extract.

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Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



Gromwell is known to have diverse pharmacological, cosmetic and nutritional benefits for humans. Nevertheless, the biological influence of gromwell extract (GE) on the general physiology of eukaryotic cells remains unknown. In this study a global transcriptome analysis was performed to identify genes affected by the addition of GE with Cryptococcus neoformans as the model system.


In response to GE treatment, genes involved in signal transduction were immediately regulated, and the evolutionarily conserved sets of genes involved in the core cellular functions, including DNA replication, RNA transcription/processing and protein translation/processing, were generally up-regulated. In contrast, a number of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and transport, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, post-translational modification/protein turnover/chaperone functions and signal transduction were down-regulated. Among the GE-responsive genes that are also evolutionarily conserved in the human genome, the expression patterns of YSA1, TPO2, CFO1 and PZF1 were confirmed by northern blot analysis. Based on the functional characterization of some GE-responsive genes, it was found that GE treatment may promote cellular tolerance against a variety of environmental stresses in eukaryotes.


GE treatment affects the expression levels of a significant portion of the Cryptococcus genome, implying that GE significantly affects the general physiology of eukaryotic cells.


Cryptococcus; DNA microarray; eukaryotic genes; gromwell; transcriptome

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