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Diagn Interv Imaging. 2013 Sep;94(9):835-48. doi: 10.1016/j.diii.2013.03.014. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: An overview.

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Radiology department, Pluridisciplinary HHT team, Ambroise-Paré Hospital, Groupement des Hôpitaux Île-de-France Ouest, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 9, avenue Charles-de-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France.


Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is an autosomic dominant disorder, which is characterized by the development of multiple arteriovenous malformations in either the skin, mucous membranes, and/or visceral organs. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) may either rupture, and lead to life-threatening hemoptysis/hemothorax or be responsible for a right-to-left shunting leading to paradoxical embolism, causing stroke or cerebral abscess. PAVMs patients should systematically be screened as the spontaneous complication rate is high, by reaching almost 50%. Neurological complications rate is considerably higher in patients presenting with diffuse pulmonary involvement. PAVM diagnosis is mainly based upon transthoracic contrast echocardiography and CT scanner examination. The latter also allows the planification of treatments to adopt, which consists of percutaneous embolization, having replaced surgery in most of the cases. The anchor technique consists of percutaneous coil embolization of the afferent pulmonary arteries of the PAVM, by firstly placing a coil into a small afferent arterial branch closely upstream the PAVM. Enhanced contrast CT scanner is the key follow-up examination that depicts the PAVM enlargement, indicating the various mechanisms of PAVM reperfusion. When performed by experienced operators as the prime treatment, percutaneous embolization of PAVMs, is a safe, efficient and sustained therapy in the great majority of HHT patients.


ACVRL1; ALK1; Activin receptor like kinase; Activin type-II-like receptor kinase 1; CT; Computed tomography; HHT; Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia; MIP; MRA; Magnetic resonnance angiography; Maximum intensity projection; PAH; PAVM; Percutaneous embolization; Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations; Rendu-Osler disease; Right-to-left shunt; TTCE; Transthoracic contrast echocardiography

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