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J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013 Apr;13(4):2632-9.

Inverted organic photovoltaic cells using three-dimensionally interconnected TiO2 nanotube arrays.

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Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 130-749, South Korea.


Here we describe a simple sol-gel method to fabricate inverted organic photovoltaics (OPV) using interconnected TiO2 nanotubes (inter-TiO2 NT) as an efficient electron transport layer. Three-dimensionally inter-TiO2 NT arrays were prepared by spin-coating a TiO2 precursor solution on the ZnO nanorod (NR) template grown via the liquid phase deposition method. Upon etching of ZnO NRs, inter-TiO2 NT arrays were generated, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). A blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) deeply infiltrated into the pores of inter-TiO2 NT, as revealed by FE-SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of inter-TiO2 NT-based inverted OPV reached 3.0% at an air mass of 1.5 (100 mW/cm2), which is a 25% performance improvement compared to flat TiO2 films derived from the sol-gel process or commercial paste. The efficiency improvement arises from facilitated charge separation and collection due to the increased TiO2 interface arera and efficient transport pathway.

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