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Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Aug;41(15):7387-400. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt484. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.

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Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA, Institute of Technology, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA, Laboratório de Bioinformática do Laboratório Nacional de Computação Científica, Petrópolis, RJ 25651-075, Brasil, Departamento de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal, UNESP -Universidade Estadual Paulista, SP 14884-900, Brasil, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brasil, Departamento de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270901, Brasil, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA, Laboratório de Entomologia Médica IPEPATRO/FIOCRUZ, Porto Velho, RO 76812-245, Brasil, Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brasil, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE 62042-280, Brasil, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Campus Senador Helvídio Nunes de Barros, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Picos, PI 60740-000, Brasil, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, PA 66075-900, Brasil, Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA, Informatics, The J. Craig Venter Institute, Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA, Departamento de Genética, Evolução e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-862, Brasil, Departamento de Genética e Melhoramento, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG 36570-000, Brasil, Centro de Apoio Mul


Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at

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