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Virol J. 2013 Jun 13;10:193. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-10-193.

Molecular characterization of human adenovirus infection in Thailand, 2009-2012.



Human adenovirus (HAdV) can cause a wide spectrum of human diseases worldwide.


Using PCR and sequence analysis, we investigated HAdV infection prevalence in the Thai population for four years from January 2009 to December 2012. We collected Nasopharyngeal swab/aspirate (NP) specimens from patients in Bangkok, Khon Kaen, and Nakhon Si Thammarat province and fecal specimens only from Bangkok and Khon Kaen province.


We observed HAdV infection in 1.04% (82/7,921) of NP samples and in 5.84% (76/1,301) of fecal specimens. HAdV-B3 (32%) and HAdV-C1 (31%) were the genotypes most commonly associated with NP specimens followed by HAdV-C2 (13%) and HAdV-C5 (12%). In fecal specimens, we found that 25% harbored HAdV-F41 followed by HAdV-C1 (18%), HAdV-C2 (16%), and HAdV-B3 (13%). Out of all population subsets, children below the age of 3 years were the most likely to be HAdV positive (63.29%). In addition, HAdV infection occurred throughout the year without a seasonal distribution pattern, although HAdV infection of NP samples peaked from January-April while HAdV infection peaked from January to March and then again from May to July in fecal samples.


This study has for the first time reported the HAdV infection rate in Thai NP and fecal specimens from 2009-2012. We observed that HAdV-B3 and HAdV-C1 were commonly found in NP specimens, and that HAdV-F41 was the most prevalence in fecal specimens in Thailand during the study period.

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