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BMC Hematol. 2013 Jun 13;13:7. doi: 10.1186/2052-1839-13-7. eCollection 2013.

Baseline thrombocytopenia complicated by recurrent episodes of transient severe thrombocytopenia following infections in an adult woman with a non involuting congenital hemangioma - a case report.

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  • 1National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Regent Street, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.
  • 2National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Regent Street, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka ; Lanka Hospitals, Colombo 5, Sri Lanka.
  • 3Faculty of Medicine, University of Sri Jayawardenapura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Congenital hemangiomas are benign abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. Noninvoluting congenital hemangiomas are a rare variant which persist, and may become bigger. Hemangiomas are known to be associated with thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon is characterized by consumptive coagulopathy with microangiopathic haemolyic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Platelet sequestration in the hemangioma or increased destruction which may either be immune or non immune are also further contributors to thrombocytopenia.

CASE PRESENTATION:

A 45 year old female with a non involuting hemangioma and baseline thrombocytopenia was observed to develop repeated episodes of transient severe thrombocytopenia associated with a variety of infectious conditions. Laboratory investigations suggested a peripheral mechanism. Platelet counts always returned to baseline levels on resolution of the precipitating infection.

CONCLUSION:

The authors report this phenomenon as the first reported case of baseline thrombocytopenia complicated by recurrent episodes of transient severe thrombocytopenia following infections associated with a non involuting congenital hemangioma. The observations made in this patient were unique and hitherto unreported in medical literature. Both peripheral sequestration and destructive consumption were considered likely. Consumptive mechanisms were likely to encompass either or both immune and non immune causes. Further studies are needed to establish the precise pathogenesis.

KEYWORDS:

Hemangioma; Infection; Platelet; Severe thrombocytopenia; Thrombocytopenia

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