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J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2013;76(9):540-55. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2013.785321.

Revised methods for estimating potential reentry exposure associated with indoor crack and crevice and perimeter application.

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LLC, Manassas, Virginia, USA.


Surface deposition of insecticides applied as indoor residential foggers, baseboard or perimeter sprays, spot sprays, and crack-and-crevice (C&C) sprays represent pathways of unintentional, postapplication exposure for children and adults. Estimation of the magnitude of this exposure following an application event is associated with uncertainty due to many factors, including (1) surface residue deposition and distribution, (2) access to and the nature of contact with treated surfaces based on time-activity patterns of residents, and (3) the role of residue removal mechanisms such as cleaning treated surfaces, pesticide degradation or redistribution, and hand washing and bathing following contact. A comparative spatial deposition study was conducted involving broadcast, perimeter, and C&C application methods. Residues measured using a spatial grid of deposition dosimeters on floor surfaces demonstrated significantly lower residue concentrations in readily accessible areas following C&C and perimeter applications, versus broadcast treatment. Analyses of other monitoring studies support this finding. The implications of these findings are discussed for both screening-level and higher tier probabilistic postapplication, residential exposure assessment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) current guidance on interpretation of deposition following C&C application is supported by data in this study and others that indicate a ratio of 10:1 for deposition for broadcast versus C&C application. However, the perimeter deposition data are quite similar to C&C deposition and do not support a 70/30 default relative to broadcast recommended by the U.S. EPA (2012).

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