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PLoS One. 2013 Jun 4;8(6):e65825. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065825. Print 2013.

Behavioural disturbances in a temperate fish exposed to sustained high-CO2 levels.

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1
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. fredrik.jutfelt@bioenv.gu.se

Abstract

As atmospheric CO2 levels rise, the CO2 concentration in ocean surface waters increases through a process commonly referred to as ocean acidification. Recently, surprising behavioural modifications has been detected in the early life stages of tropical coral reef fish exposed to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 concentrations, but it has been unclear if this effect could occur in temperate waters. Here we show several severe behavioural disturbances, including effects on boldness, exploratory behaviour, lateralisation, and learning in a temperate fish, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The behavioural effects were consistent throughout the exposure period and increased in effect size with exposure time. We observed the effects on adult sticklebacks, a species known to be tolerant to other environmental stressors. Our findings suggest that behavioural abnormalities that stem from CO2 exposure are not restricted to sensitive tropical species or early life stages and may therefore affect fish on a global scale. The severity of disturbances and the possibility of a serious behavioural problem for fish across the globe is cause for concern.

PMID:
23750274
PMCID:
PMC3672104
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0065825
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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