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Mol Cell Biochem. 2013 Oct;382(1-2):75-82. doi: 10.1007/s11010-013-1719-2. Epub 2013 Jun 8.

Association of angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism with rheumatic heart disease in Indian population and meta-analysis.

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Department of Genetics, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, 226014, India.


Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is one of the most severe consequences of rheumatic fever. It has been suggested that angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) may be involved in the increased valvular fibrosis and calcification in the pathogenesis of RHD. We conducted a case-control study to look for association of ACE I/D polymorphism with RHD in Indian population. The study incorporated 300 patients (170 males and 130 females) with RHD, and 200 controls (118 males and 82 females). We also subgrouped RHD patients into mitral valve lesion (MVL) and combined valve lesion (CVL). ACE I/D polymorphism was identified using polymerase chain reaction method. We also performed a meta-analysis of three published studies and the present study (636 RHD cases and 533 controls) to evaluate the association between the ACE I/D polymorphisms and RHD risk. A significant difference in ACE ID and DD genotypes distribution between RHD cases (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11-2.36 and OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.02-4.15, respectively) and corresponding controls was observed. On comparing the ACE genotypes of MVL and CVL subgroups with controls, ID and DD genotypes were also significantly associated with CVL (FDR Pcorr = 0.009, OR = 2.19 and FDR Pcorr = 0.014, OR = 3.29, respectively). Meta-analysis also suggested association of the ACE D allele (FDR Pcorr = 0.036, OR-1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.45) with RHD. In conclusion, ACE ID and DD genotypes are associated with an increased risk of RHD, particularly CVL. This suggests that the ACE I/D gene polymorphism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RHD.

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