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Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2013 Jun 1;18:1244-55.

The role of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of indirect acute lung injury.

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Department of Anesthetics, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.


Indirect acute lung injury (IALI) manifests as rapid-onset respiratory failure following secondary clinical events to the parenchyma or lung vasculature, such as hemorrhage shock, extra-pulmonary sepsis, trauma, ischemia-reperfusion, and burn injury. Accumulating evidence demonstrates the pivotal role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the innate immune system of lung diseases. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), one of the well characterized PRRs, recognizes not only the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, but also the endogenous ligands in IALI. In this review, we summarize a variety of reports concerning the role of TLR4 and IALI pathogenesis.

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