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Environ Pollut. 2013 Sep;180:92-100. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.05.004. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

Potentially toxic contamination of sediments, water and two animal species in Lake Kalimanci, FYR Macedonia: relevance to human health.

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Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Department of Geology, Aškerčeva Cesta 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.


The objectives of the research were: (1) to examine the concentrations of metals in Vimba melanops and Rana temporaria and (2) to evaluate the potential risks of the contaminated organisms to human health in Makedonska Kamenica region. Analyses identified high levels of Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in studied animals, which also exceeded their permissible levels in food. In sediment and soil samples, levels of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and As were perceived, while Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and As were increased in water samples. Results of transfer factor revealed that the examined animals had higher bioaccumulation rate from surrounding waters than from sediments or soils. The accomplished Health Risk Index disclosed that studied animals can have considerably high health risks for inhabitants. Conclusively, they could be considered as highly contaminated with metals and can consequently harm human health, especially children in their early development stages.


Bioaccumulation; Contamination; Health risks; Lake Kalimanci

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