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Metab Eng. 2013 Sep;19:50-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ymben.2013.05.006. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

Combinational expression of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenases and cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone increases 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production in Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus cereus consortium.

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Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering, Ministry of Education and Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, P.O. Box 6888, Tianjin 300072, PR China.


The expression levels of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenase genes (sdh and sndh) and the synthesis genes (pqqABCDEN) of the adjoint cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) were genetically manipulated in Ketogulonigenium vulgare to increase the production of 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG), the precursor of vitamin C, in the consortium of K. vulgare and Bacillus cereus. We found that overexpression of sdh-sndh alone in K. vulgare could not significantly enhance the production of 2-KLG, revealing the cofactor PQQ was required for the biosynthesis of 2-KLG. Various expression levels of PQQ were achieved by differential expression of pqqA, pqqABCDE and pqqABCDEN, respectively. The combinatorial expression of sdh/sndh and pqqABCDEN in K. vulgare enabled a 20% increase in the production of 2-KLG (79.1±0.6gl(-1)) than that of the parental K. vulgare (65.9±0.4gl(-1)) in shaking flasks. Our results demonstrated the balanced co-expression of both the key enzymes and the related cofactors was an efficient strategy to increase chemicals' biosynthesis.


2-Keto-l-gulonic acid; Cofactor engineering; Consortium; Pyrroloquinoline quinine

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