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Sci Total Environ. 2013 Sep 1;461-462:377-85. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.015. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

Variability in operation-based NO(x) emission factors with different test routes, and its effects on the real-driving emissions of light diesel vehicles.

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National Institute of Environmental Research, Hwangyeong-ro 42, Seo, Incheon 404-708, Republic of Korea.


The objective of this study is to quantify the differences in NO(x) emissions between standard and non-standard driving and vehicle operating conditions, and to estimate by how much NO(x) emissions exceed the legislative emission limits under typical Korean road traffic conditions. Twelve Euro 3-5 light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs) manufactured in Korea were driven on a chassis dynamometer over the standard New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and a representative Korean on-road driving cycle (KDC). NO(x) emissions, average speeds and accelerations were calculated for each 1-km trip segment, so called averaging windows. The results suggest that the NO(x) emissions of the tested vehicles are more susceptible to variations in the driving cycles than to those in the operating conditions. Even under comparable operating conditions, the NO(x) control capabilities of vehicles differ from each other, i.e., NO(x) control is weaker for the KDC than for the NEDC. The NO(x) emissions over the KDC for given vehicle operating conditions exceed those over the NEDC by more than a factor of 8. Consequently, on-road NO(x) emission factors are estimated here to exceed the Euro 5 emission limit by up to a factor of 8, 4 and 3 for typical Korean urban, rural, and motorway road traffic conditions, respectively. Our findings support the development of technical regulations for supplementary real-world emission tests for emission certification and the corresponding research actions taken by automotive industries.


Light-duty diesel vehicles; Nitrogen oxide (NO(x)); On-road emissions; Operating conditions; Road traffic conditions

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