Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2014 Jan;87:98-104. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2013.05.014. Epub 2013 May 18.

Pharmaceutical development, composition and quantitative analysis of phthalocyanine as the photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy.

Author information

Cancer Metastasis Alert and Prevention Center, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, 523 Industry Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.


Phthalocyanine (Pc) and its related derivatives are a class of functional materials that are easily activated by the light at a special wavelength. As such photosensitizer, Pc has been applied to photodynamic therapy (PDT), in addition to its broad applications in many fields, for both malignant and benign diseases. One of our long-term research focuses is to develop Pc for cancer therapy. Herein we briefly review mechanisms of action of Pc used for photodynamic therapy, its pharmaceutical development and molecular modification to enhance its drugability and improve its intracellular localization. We also describe the current status of the Pc derivatives under clinical investigation, and analyze the methods used for quantitative analysis of those Pc derivatives.


(1)O(2); AlPcS; EGFR; ER; OOPS; OPOC; PDT; Pc; Photodynamic therapy; Photosensitizer; Phthalocyanine; RGD; ROS; Reactive oxygen species; USP; United States Pharmacopoeia; ZnPc; ZnPcS(2)P(2); arginine–glycine–aspartic acid; di-(potassium sulfonate)-di-phthalimidomethyl phthalocyanine zinc; di-oleoyl phosphatidylserine; endoplasmic reticulum; epidermal growth factor receptor; palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine; photodynamic therapy; phthalocyanine; phthalocyanine zinc; reactive oxygen species; scFv; single-chain Fv fragments; singlet molecular oxygen; sulfonated phthalocyanine aluminum

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center