Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 12;288(28):20683-91. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.472159. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

Anti-HIV host factor SAMHD1 regulates viral sensitivity to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors via modulation of cellular deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels.

Author information

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.


Newly identified anti-HIV host factor, SAMHD1, restricts replication of lentiviruses such as HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus in macrophages by enzymatically hydrolyzing and depleting cellular dNTPs, which are the substrates of viral DNA polymerases. HIV-2 and some simian immunodeficiency viruses express viral protein X (VPX), which counteracts SAMHD1 and elevates cellular dNTPs, enhancing viral replication in macrophages. Because nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), the most commonly used anti-HIV drugs, compete against cellular dNTPs for incorporation into proviral DNA, we tested whether SAMHD1 directly affects the efficacy of NRTIs in inhibiting HIV-1. We found that reduction of SAMHD1 levels with the use of virus-like particles expressing Vpx- and SAMHD1-specific shRNA subsequently elevates cellular dNTPs and significantly decreases HIV-1 sensitivity to various NRTIs in macrophages. However, virus-like particles +Vpx treatment of activated CD4(+) T cells only minimally reduced NRTI efficacy. Furthermore, with the use of HPLC, we could not detect SAMHD1-mediated hydrolysis of NRTI-triphosphates, verifying that the reduced sensitivity of HIV-1 to NRTIs upon SAMHD1 degradation is most likely caused by the elevation in cellular dNTPs.


DNA Polymerase; DNA Replication; HIV-1; Macrophages; Nucleoside Nucleotide Analogs

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center