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Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Jul-Aug;48(4):397-408. doi: 10.3109/10409238.2013.789479. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

NAD⁺ metabolism: a therapeutic target for age-related metabolic disease.

Author information

1
Laboratory for Integrative and Systems Physiology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.
2
Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a central metabolic cofactor by virtue of its redox capacity, and as such regulates a wealth of metabolic transformations. However, the identification of the longevity protein silent regulator 2 (Sir2), the founding member of the sirtuin protein family, as being NAD⁺-dependent reignited interest in this metabolite. The sirtuins (SIRT1-7 in mammals) utilize NAD⁺ to deacetylate proteins in different subcellular compartments with a variety of functions, but with a strong convergence on optimizing mitochondrial function. Since cellular NAD⁺ levels are limiting for sirtuin activity, boosting its levels is a powerful means to activate sirtuins as a potential therapy for mitochondrial, often age-related, diseases. Indeed, supplying excess precursors, or blocking its utilization by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes or CD38/CD157, boosts NAD⁺ levels, activates sirtuins and promotes healthy aging. Here, we discuss the current state of knowledge of NAD⁺ metabolism, primarily in relation to sirtuin function. We highlight how NAD⁺ levels change in diverse physiological conditions, and how this can be employed as a pharmacological strategy.

PMID:
23742622
PMCID:
PMC3858599
DOI:
10.3109/10409238.2013.789479
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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