Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:702120. doi: 10.1155/2013/702120. Epub 2013 Apr 28.

Examining the impact of skin lighteners in vitro.

Author information

Lonza Consumer Care, 70 Tyler Place, South Plainfield, NJ 07080, USA.


Three cosmetically important skin lightening agents, hydroquinone (HQ), kojic acid (KA), and niacinamide (NA), consume the bulk of successful skin lightening ingredients in cosmetic applications. However, the mechanisms by which these ingredients work are still unclear. In this study, melanocytes and keratinocytes were treated with high, nontoxic doses of HQ, KA, and NA and the cells were examined by human microarrays and protein assays for several important targets including cytotoxicity, melanin expression, tyrosinase gene (TYR) and protein expression, melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene and protein expression, cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX1) gene and protein expression, and ferritin (FTH1) gene and protein expression. It was found that all the skin lighteners examined showed marked increases in TYR, COX1, and FTH1 gene and protein expression, but not in MC1R expression in melanocytes. Upregulation of COX1 and FTH1 genes and proteins was common across both cell lines, melanocytes and keratinocytes. The results of the tyrosinase expression were somewhat unexpected. The role of iron in the expression of melanin is somewhat unexplored, but common and strong upregulation of ferritin protein in both types of cells due to the treatments suggests that iron plays a more pivotal role in melanin synthesis than previously anticipated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Hindawi Publishing Corporation Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center