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J Biol Chem. 1990 Jul 25;265(21):12520-8.

Cloning, structural analysis, and expression of the human fast twitch skeletal muscle troponin C gene.

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Program in Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033.


The gene encoding human fast skeletal muscle troponin C (TnC) was cloned, mapped, and sequenced. The locations of intron positions in this gene were compared to those in the related genes for mouse slow skeletal TnC and vertebrate and nonvertebrate calmodulins. We detected strikingly similar purine-rich DNA sequences on the coding strand in the basal promoter of the genes for fast and slow troponin C and chicken calmodulin II which may represent conserved regulatory elements in genes of the vertebrate troponin C/calmodulin gene family. We mapped the transcriptional start site of the gene and analyzed the expression of TnC test genes in the myogenic cell lines C2, L8, and H9c2(2-1) and in the human fibroblast line HuT12. Constructs comprising 4.7 or 6.2 kilobase pairs of 5'-flanking sequence (including the genuine transcriptional start site) upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene as reporter expressed the hybrid gene in C2 cells but not in nonmuscle cells. Surprisingly, no expression was found in cell lines L8 and H9c2(2-1) despite the fact that all three muscle cell lines vigorously express the endogenous TnC fast mRNA after differentiation. The discrepancy between the expression of endogenous genes and the test gene in these cell lines indicates different requirements for regulatory elements in different myogenic cells.

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