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Mol Vis. 2013 May 21;19:1074-81. Print 2013.

Insulin-like growth factor 1 is not associated with high myopia in a large Japanese cohort.

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Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.



To investigate whether genetic variations in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene are associated with high myopia in Japanese.


A total of 1,339 unrelated Japanese patients with high myopia (axial length ≥26 mm in both eyes) and two independent control groups were evaluated (334 cataract patients without high myopia and 1,194 healthy Japanese individuals). The mean axial length (mm±SD) in the case group was 29.18±1.85 mm, and the mean spherical equivalent (D±SD) of the phakic eyes was -12.69±4.54 D. We genotyped five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IGF-1: rs6214, rs978458, rs5742632, rs12423791, and rs2162679. Chi-square tests for trend, multivariable logistic regression, and haplotype regression analysis were conducted.


We found no significant association between the IGF-1 SNPs and high or extreme myopia (axial length ≥28 mm in both eyes, 837 subjects) in the additive model, even when compared with the cataract and general population controls, with or without adjustments for age and sex. The evaluation using dominant and recessive models also did not reveal any significant associations. The haplotype analysis with a variable-sized sliding-window strategy also showed a lack of association of IGF-1 SNPs with high or extreme myopia.


The results of the present study using a Japanese subset do not support the proposal that the IGF-1 gene determines susceptibility to high or extreme myopia in Caucasians and Chinese. Further studies are needed to confirm our reports in other populations and to identify the underlying genetic determinants of these ocular pathological conditions.

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