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Infant Behav Dev. 2013 Dec;36(4):507-12. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.04.005. Epub 2013 Jun 1.

Changes in the affect of infants before and after episodes of crying.

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University of the Sacred Heart, 4-3-1, Hiroo, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8938, Japan. Electronic address:


This study examined the affect of infants just before the onset of crying and just after crying stopped. Two infants (between 7 and 14 months old) were observed longitudinally. In total, 102 crying episodes were analyzed. The infants displayed negative affect almost always just before starting to cry and soon after crying terminated. However, there were exceptions. Positive affect was observed. These were crying behaviors that the mother identified as "fake crying" or "emergence of fake crying". These data indicate that, although normally infant affect just before and right after crying is negative, infants also can exhibit positive affect when they show fake crying. Infants who are capable of fake crying might communicate successfully with their caregivers.


Affect after the end of crying; Affect before the onset of crying; Fake crying; Infant affect; Infant crying

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