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J Proteome Res. 2013 Jul 5;12(7):3519-28. doi: 10.1021/pr4004135. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

HR-MAS NMR tissue metabolomic signatures cross-validated by mass spectrometry distinguish bladder cancer from benign disease.

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Departments of Chemistry and Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.


Effective diagnosis and surveillance of bladder cancer (BCa) is currently challenged by detection methods that are of poor sensitivity, particularly for low-grade tumors, resulting in unnecessary invasive procedures and economic burden. We performed HR-MAS NMR-based global metabolomic profiling and applied unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering performed on NMR data set of bladder-derived tissues and identified metabolic signatures that differentiate BCa from benign disease. A partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model (leave-one-out cross-validation) was used as a diagnostic model to distinguish benign and BCa tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curve generated either from PC1 loadings of PCA or from predicted Y-values resulted in an area under curve of 0.97. Relative quantification of more than 15 tissue metabolites derived from HR-MAS NMR showed significant differences (P < 0.001) between benign and BCa samples. Noticeably, striking metabolic signatures were observed even for early stage BCa tissues (Ta-T1), demonstrating the sensitivity in detecting BCa. With the goal of cross-validating metabolic signatures derived from HR-MAS NMR, we utilized the same tissue samples to analyze 8 metabolites through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-targeted analysis, which undoubtedly complements HR-MAS NMR-derived metabolomic information. Cross-validation through GC-MS clearly demonstrates the utility of a straightforward, nondestructive, and rapid HR-MAS NMR technique for clinical diagnosis of BCa with even greater sensitivity. In addition to its utility as a diagnostic tool, these studies will lead to a better understanding of aberrant metabolic pathways in cancer as well as the design and implementation of personalized cancer therapy through metabolic modulation.

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