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Appetite. 2013 Oct;69:89-93. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.05.015. Epub 2013 May 29.

Dimensions of vegetable parenting practices among preschoolers.

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USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1100 Bates Street, Houston, TX 77030-2600, USA.


The objective of this study was to determine the factor structure of 31 effective and ineffective vegetable parenting practices used by parents of preschool children based on three theoretically proposed factors: responsiveness, control and structure. The methods employed included both corrected item-total correlations and confirmatory factor analysis. Acceptable fit was obtained only when effective and ineffective parenting practices were analyzed separately. Among effective items the model included one second order factor (effectiveness) and the three proposed first order factors. The same structure was revealed among ineffective items, but required correlated paths be specified among items. A theoretically specified three factor structure was obtained among 31 vegetable parenting practice items, but likely to be effective and ineffective items had to be analyzed separately. Research is needed on how these parenting practices factors predict child vegetable intake.


Factor analysis; Parenting practices; Preschoolers; Psychometrics; Vegetables

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