Send to

Choose Destination
Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 Oct;63:390-8. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.05.030. Epub 2013 May 28.

High-fat diet induces changes in adipose tissue trans-4-oxo-2-nonenal and trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal levels in a depot-specific manner.

Author information

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.


Protein carbonylation is the covalent modification of proteins by α,β-unsaturated aldehydes produced by nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The most widely studied aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation, trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), is associated with obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and has demonstrated reactivity toward key proteins involved in cellular function. However, 4-HNE is only one of many lipid peroxidation products and the lipid aldehyde profile in adipose tissue has not been characterized. To further understand the role of oxidative stress in obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction, a novel LC-MS/MS method was developed to evaluate aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation and applied to the analysis of adipose tissue. 4-HNE and trans-4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE) were the most abundant aldehydes present in adipose tissue. In high fat-fed C57Bl/6J and ob/ob mice the levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased 5- to 11-fold in epididymal adipose, unchanged in brown adipose, but decreased in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Epididymal adipose tissue of high fat-fed mice also exhibited increased levels of proteins modified by 4-HNE and 4-ONE, whereas subcutaneous adipose tissue levels of these modifications were decreased. High fat feeding of C57Bl/6J mice resulted in decreased expression of a number of genes linked to antioxidant biology selectively in epididymal adipose tissue. Moreover, TNFα treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in decreased expression of GSTA4, GPx4, and Prdx3 while upregulating the expression of SOD2. These results suggest that inflammatory cytokines selectively downregulate antioxidant gene expression in visceral adipose tissue, resulting in elevated lipid aldehydes and increased protein carbonylation.


4-HHE; 4-HNE; 4-HNE-d(3); 4-ONE; 4-ONE-d(3); ALDH2; AOA; Adipose; BHT; DTPA; EWAT; Free radicals; GPx3; GSTA4; Gene expression; Gpx4; HF; LF; MDA; Obesity; Oxidative stress; PUFA; Prdx3; RSD; SAT; SOD2; aldehyde dehydrogenase 2; amino-oxyacetic acid; butylated hydroxytoluene; diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid; epididymal white adipose tissue; glutathione S-transferase A4; glutathione peroxidase 3; glutathione peroxidase 4; high fat diet; low fat diet; malondialdehyde; manganese superoxide dismutase; peroxiredoxin 3; polyunsaturated fatty acid; relative standard deviation; subcutaneous white adipose tissue; trans-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal; trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-9, 9, 9-d(3); trans-4-oxo-2-nonenal; trans-4-oxo-2-nonenal-9, 9, 9-d(3)

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center