Send to

Choose Destination
Virology. 2013 Aug 15;443(1):150-60. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2013.05.004. Epub 2013 May 28.

Frequency and patterns of reassortment in natural influenza A virus infection in a reservoir host.

Author information

Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar SE-391 82, Sweden.


Influenza A viruses (IAV) can dramatically alter both genotype and phenotype at a rapid rate as a product of co-infection and reassortment. Avian IAV exhibit high levels of phylogenetic incongruence, suggesting high levels of reassortment in the virus reservoir. Using a natural-experimental system, we reconstructed relationships amongst 92 viruses across 15 subtypes from 10 Mallards in an autumn season. Phylogenetic analyses estimated that 56% of the isolated viruses were reassorted. Network analysis demonstrated different patterns of reassortment and limited exchange of segments between primary and secondary infections. No clear patterns of linkage between segments were found, and patterns within a season were likely the consequence of continued introduction of new constellations, high viral load and diversity in the wild bird reservoir, and co-infections. This is the first IAV study to implement multiple tools available for elucidating factors governing reassortment patterns in naturally infected Mallards.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Publication type, MeSH terms, Substance, Secondary source ID

Publication type

MeSH terms


Secondary source ID

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center