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J Diet Suppl. 2013 Jun;10(2):93-104. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2013.790332.

A short-term evaluation of the relationship between plasma ascorbic acid levels and periodontal disease in systemically healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects.

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Department of Periodontics, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Dental Sciences & Hospital, Sattur, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.



Deficient ascorbic acid levels (AALs) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with periodontal disease. This study evaluated the relationship between plasma AAL and periodontitis in systemically healthy and T2DM subjects, which to the best of our knowledge is being reported for the first time.


One hundred twenty subjects were categorized into four groups of 30 each as group 1: without periodontal disease; group 2: chronic gingivitis; group 3: chronic periodontitis, and group 4: chronic periodontitis and freshly diagnosed T2DM. Plaque index (PlI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and probing pocket depths (PPDs) were evaluated. Venous blood was evaluated for plasma AAL spectrophotometrically. Randomized subjects were subgrouped within groups 2-4, to receive either scaling and root planing (SRP) with dietary supplementation (450 mg) of ascorbic acid (AA) for two weeks or only SRP. After two weeks, the clinical parameters were reassessed. Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures and paired t test were used with the level of statistical significance adjusted to p ≤ .05.


AAL plasma levels were significantly greater in group 1 than in group 2 (p = .0007) and in group 4 (p = .0003). A significant reduction in the SBI was seen in the subgroups that received dietary supplementation of vitamin C within group 2 (p = .0012) and group 4 (p = .036).


Plasma AAL is below the normal range in systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and diabetics with periodontitis. Dietary AA supplementation with SRP improves the SBI in subjects with gingivitis and diabetics with periodontitis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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