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Int J Clin Exp Med. 2013 May 22;6(5):377-89. Print 2013.

Guidelines for the treatment of head and neck venous malformations.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai 200011, China.


Venous malformation is one of the most common benign vascular lesions, with approximately 40% of cases appearing in the head and neck. They can affect a patient's appearance and functionality and even cause life-threatening bleeding or respiratory tract obstruction. The current methods of treatment include surgery, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, or a combined. The treatment of small and superficial venous malformations is relatively simple and effective; however, the treatment of deep and extensive lesions involving multiple anatomical sites remains a challenge for the physicians. For complex cases, the outcomes achieved with one single treatment approach are poor; therefore, individualized treatment modalities must be formulated based on the patient's condition and the techniques available. Comprehensive multidisciplinary treatments have been adapted to achieve the most effective results. In this paper, based on the national and international literature, we formulated the treatment guidelines for head and neck venous malformations to standardize clinical practice. The guideline will be renewed and updated in a timely manner to reflect cutting-edge knowledge and to provide the best treatment modalities for patients.


Head and neck; treatment guidelines; venous malformation


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