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Br J Cancer. 2013 Jun 25;108(12):2601-9. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2013.261. Epub 2013 May 30.

A personalised approach to prostate cancer screening based on genotyping of risk founder alleles.

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Department of Genetics and Pathology, International Hereditary Cancer Center, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.



To evaluate whether genotyping for 18 prostate cancer founder variants is helpful in identifying high-risk individuals and for determining optimal screening regimens.


A serum PSA level was measured and a digital rectal examination (DRE) was performed on 2907 unaffected men aged 40-90. Three hundred and twenty-three men with an elevated PSA (≥4 ng ml⁻¹) or an abnormal DRE underwent a prostate biopsy. All men were genotyped for three founder alleles in BRCA1 (5382insC, 4153delA and C61G), for four alleles in CHEK2 (1100delC, IVS2+1G>A, del5395 and I157T), for one allele in NBS1 (657del5), for one allele in HOXB13 (G84E), and for nine low-risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).


On the basis of an elevated PSA or an abnormal DRE, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 135 of 2907 men (4.6%). In men with a CHEK2 missense mutation I157T, the cancer detection rate among men with an elevated PSA or an abnormal DRE was much higher (10.2%, P=0.0008). The cancer detection rate rose with the number of SNP risk genotypes observed from 1.2% for men with no variant to 8.6% for men who carried six or more variants (P=0.04). No single variant was helpful on its own in predicting the presence of prostate cancer, however, the combination of all rare mutations and SNPs improved predictive power (area under the curve=0.59; P=0.03).


These results suggest that testing for germline CHEK2 mutations improves the ability to predict the presence of prostate cancer in screened men, however, the clinical utility of incorporating DNA variants in the screening process is marginal.

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