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J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 12;288(28):20692-701. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.485730. Epub 2013 May 29.

Par14 protein associates with insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), thereby enhancing insulin-induced IRS-1 phosphorylation and metabolic actions.

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Department of Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Hiroshima, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, 734-8553 Hiroshima City, 734-8553 Hiroshima, Japan.


Pin1 and Par14 are parvulin-type peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases. Although numerous proteins have been identified as Pin1 substrates, the target proteins of Par14 remain largely unknown. Par14 expression levels are increased in the livers and embryonic fibroblasts of Pin1 KO mice, suggesting a compensatory relationship between the functions of Pin1 and Par14. In this study, the association of Par14 with insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was demonstrated in HepG2 cells overexpressing both as well as endogenously in the mouse liver. The analysis using deletion-mutated Par14 and IRS-1 constructs revealed the N-terminal portion containing the basic domain of Par14 and the two relatively C-terminal portions of IRS-1 to be involved in these associations, in contrast to the WW domain of Pin1 and the SAIN domain of IRS-1. Par14 overexpression in HepG2 markedly enhanced insulin-induced IRS-1 phosphorylation and its downstream events, PI3K binding with IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, treating HepG2 cells with Par14 siRNA suppressed these events. In addition, overexpression of Par14 in the insulin-resistant ob/ob mouse liver by adenoviral transfer significantly improved hyperglycemia with normalization of hepatic PEPCK and G6Pase mRNA levels, and gene suppression of Par14 using shRNA adenovirus significantly exacerbated the glucose intolerance in Pin1 KO mice. Therefore, although Pin1 and Par14 associate with different portions of IRS-1, the prolyl cis/trans isomerization in multiple sites of IRS-1 by these isomerases appears to be critical for efficient insulin receptor-induced IRS-1 phosphorylation. This process is likely to be one of the major mechanisms regulating insulin sensitivity and also constitutes a potential therapeutic target for novel insulin-sensitizing agents.


Akt; Glucose Metabolism; IRS-1; Insulin; Insulin Signaling; Liver; Par14; Pin1; Signal Transduction

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