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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Oct;68(10):2375-82. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt174. Epub 2013 May 29.

Decolonization of intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae with oral colistin and neomycin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Author information

1
Infection Control Program, Geneva University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are an increasingly frequent cause of infections in the community and the healthcare setting. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether intestinal carriage of ESBL-E can be eradicated.

METHODS:

We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-centre trial to assess the efficacy of an oral decolonization regimen on intestinal ESBL-E carriage in adult patients with an ESBL-E-positive rectal swab. Fifty-eight patients were allocated 1 : 1 to either placebo or colistin sulphate (50 mg 4×/day) and neomycin sulphate (250 mg 4×/day) for 10 days plus nitrofurantoin (100 mg 3×/day) for 5 days in the presence of ESBL-E bacteriuria. The primary outcome was detection of ESBL-E by rectal swab 28 ± 7 days after the end of treatment. Missing primary outcome data were imputed based on the last available observation. Additional cultures (rectal, inguinal and urine) were taken on day 6 of treatment and on days 1 and 7 post-treatment. The study protocol has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00826670).

RESULTS:

Among 54 patients (27 in each group) included in the primary analysis, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups with regard to the primary outcome [14/27 (52%) versus 10/27 (37%), P = 0.27]. During treatment and shortly afterwards, there was significantly lower rectal ESBL-E carriage in the treatment group: 9/26 versus 19/22 on day 6 of treatment (P < 0.001) and 8/25 versus 20/26 on day 1 post-treatment (P = 0.001). This effect had disappeared by day 7 post-treatment (18/27 versus 17/25, P = 0.92). Liquid stools were more common in the treatment group (7/27 versus 2/29, P = 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

The regimen used in this study temporarily suppressed ESBL-E carriage, but had no long-term effect.

KEYWORDS:

Switzerland; aminoglycosides; multidrug-resistant organisms; nitrofurantoin; polymyxins

PMID:
23719234
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkt174
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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