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PLoS One. 2013 May 22;8(5):e63303. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063303. Print 2013.

High seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV-infected adults in Kigali, Rwanda.

Author information

1
Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, and Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development (AIGHD), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Data on prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Rwanda are scarce.

METHODS:

HBV status was assessed at baseline and Month 12, and anti-HCV antibodies at baseline, in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients in Kigali, Rwanda: 104 men and 114 women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at baseline, and 200 women not yet eligible for ART.

RESULTS:

Baseline prevalence of active HBV infection (HBsAg positive), past or occult HBV infection (anti-HBc positive and HBsAg negative) and anti-HCV was 5.2%, 42.9%, and 5.7%, respectively. The active HBV incidence rate was 4.2/1,000 person years (PY). In a multivariable logistic regression model using baseline data, participants with WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV disease were 4.19 times (95% CI 1.21-14.47) more likely to have active HBV infection, and older patients were more likely to have evidence of past exposure to HBV (aRR 1.03 per year; 95%CI 1.01-1.06). Older age was also positively associated with having anti-HCV antibodies (aOR 1.09; 95%CI 1.04-1.14) while having a higher baseline HIV viral load was negatively associated with HCV (aOR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). The median CD4 increase during the first 12 months of ART was lower for those with active HBV infection or anti-HCV at baseline. Almost all participants (88%) with active HBV infection who were on ART were receiving lamivudine monotherapy for HBV.

CONCLUSION:

HBV and HCV are common in HIV-infected patients in Rwanda. Regular HBsAg screening is needed to ensure that HIV-HBV co-infected patients receive an HBV-active ART regimen, and the prevalence of occult HBV infection should be determined. Improved access to HBV vaccination is recommended. Active HCV prevalence and incidence should be investigated further to determine whether HCV RNA PCR testing should be introduced in Rwanda.

PMID:
23717409
PMCID:
PMC3661584
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0063303
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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