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J Ginseng Res. 2012 Jan;36(1):93-101. doi: 10.5142/jgr.2012.36.1.93.

Comparative Study of White and Steamed Black Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolium, and P. notoginseng on Cholinesterase Inhibitory and Antioxidative Activity.

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Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.


This study evaluated the anti-cholinesterases (ChEs) and antioxidant activities of white ginseng (WG) and black ginseng (BG) roots of Panax ginseng (PG), P. quinquefolium (PQ), and P. notoginseng (PN). Ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd were found in white PG, whereas Rf was not found in white PQ and Rf, Rc, and Rb2 were not detected in white PN. The major ginsenoside content in steamed BG including RK3, Rh4, and 20(S)/(R)-Rg3 was equivalent to approximately 70% of the total ginsenoside content. The WG and BG inhibited acetylcholinesteras (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in a dose dependent manner. The efficacy of BG roots of PG, PQ, and PN on AChE and BChE inhibition was greater than that of the respective WG roots. The total phenolic contents and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity were increased by heat treatment. Among the three WG and BG, white PG and steamed black PQ have significantly higher contents of phenolic compounds. The best results for the DPPH scavenging activity were obtained with the WG and BG from PG. These results demonstrate that the steamed BG roots of the three studied ginseng species have both high ChEs inhibition capacity and antioxidant activity.


Acetylcholinesterase; Antioxidants; Butyrylcholinesterase; Ginseng; Panax ginseng; Steamed black ginseng

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