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Anat Histol Embryol. 2014 Apr;43(2):141-52. doi: 10.1111/ahe.12057. Epub 2013 May 28.

Prenatal metanephrogenesis of the camel: morphological evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction.

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Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41511, Egypt.


The present investigation examined histogenesis of epithelial, stromal and angiogenic elements of the prenatal camel permanent or metanephric kidney. The primitive metanephros was first observed at the 13-mm crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) stage as an ovoid structure composed of a centrally located epithelial ureteric bud and peripheral circumscribed masses of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. The first morphological evidence of glomerulogenesis was observed at the 28-mm CVRL stage. Developing renal corpuscles became obvious at the 35-mm CVRL stage. At the 60-mm CVRL stage, the epithelial renal pelvis gave rise to tubular branches that extended towards the cortical zone. These branches represented the presumptive collecting ducts. Differentiation of renal tubules into the proximal and distal convoluted tubules was observed at the 95-mm CVRL stage. At the 130-mm CVRL stage, the renal medulla was clearly delineated into medullary pyramids, which in association with the corresponding cortical caps formed the morphological basis of the renal lobar formation. A gradual nephrogenic decline was noticed from the 940-mm CVRL on; however, the process of nephrogenesis persisted throughout all the studied foetal stages.

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