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Vaccine. 2013 Aug 2;31(35):3603-10. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.05.003. Epub 2013 May 25.

Young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes have optimal B cell responses to the seasonal influenza vaccine.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.


We evaluated immune response to the seasonal influenza vaccine in young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Immune measures included the in vivo serum response to the vaccine by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and ELISA in 22 patients (14 young, 8 elderly) and 65 healthy age-matched controls (37 young, 28 elderly). B cell-specific biomarkers of optimal vaccine response were measured ex vivo by switched memory B cells and plasmablasts and in vitro by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in stimulated cells. Markers of systemic and B cell-intrinsic inflammation were also measured. Results show that in vivo responses, as well as B cell-specific markers identified above, decrease by age in healthy individuals but not in T2D patients. This occurred despite high levels of B cell-intrinsic inflammation (TNF-α) in T2D patients, which was surprising as we had previously demonstrated this negatively impacts B cell function. These results altogether suggest that valid protection against influenza can be achieved in T2D patients and proposed mechanisms are discussed.


Antibody responses; Inflammation; Influenza vaccine; Type 2 diabetes

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