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Vaccine. 2013 Aug 2;31(35):3603-10. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.05.003. Epub 2013 May 25.

Young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes have optimal B cell responses to the seasonal influenza vaccine.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA. dfrasca@med.miami.edu

Abstract

We evaluated immune response to the seasonal influenza vaccine in young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Immune measures included the in vivo serum response to the vaccine by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and ELISA in 22 patients (14 young, 8 elderly) and 65 healthy age-matched controls (37 young, 28 elderly). B cell-specific biomarkers of optimal vaccine response were measured ex vivo by switched memory B cells and plasmablasts and in vitro by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in stimulated cells. Markers of systemic and B cell-intrinsic inflammation were also measured. Results show that in vivo responses, as well as B cell-specific markers identified above, decrease by age in healthy individuals but not in T2D patients. This occurred despite high levels of B cell-intrinsic inflammation (TNF-α) in T2D patients, which was surprising as we had previously demonstrated this negatively impacts B cell function. These results altogether suggest that valid protection against influenza can be achieved in T2D patients and proposed mechanisms are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

Antibody responses; Inflammation; Influenza vaccine; Type 2 diabetes

PMID:
23711934
PMCID:
PMC3760593
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.05.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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