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Int J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 9;168(4):3543-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.05.003. Epub 2013 May 24.

In-hospital major bleeding predicts mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism: an analysis of ZATPOL Registry data.

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I Chair and Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:



There are no data on the association between in-hospital bleeding and mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE).


To assess whether in-hospital major bleeding predicts in-hospital and 90-day mortality in patients with PE confirmed objectively using validated diagnostic criteria.


ZATPOL is a prospective national registry of consecutive patients with suspected PE admitted to 86 cardiology departments across Poland from January 2007 to September 2008. We retrospectively studied the influence of in-hospital bleeding on outcomes.


Of 2015 patients enrolled, 1216 were locally diagnosed with PE. Validated diagnostic criteria according to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines were met in 1112 patients. In the latter group, major bleeding occurred in 3.6%, and 0.5% had fatal bleeding. Thrombolytic therapy was administered to 11% of patients. Vascular access site bleeding was the most common (40%). Except for hypotension or shock and cancer, major bleeding was the strongest independent predictor of both in-hospital (OR 3.47; P=0.003) and 90-day mortality (OR 2.75; P=0.009). Other factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality were: shock or hypotension (OR 7.45; P<0.001), cancer (OR 1.9; P=0.044), and presence of ≥1 concomitant disease (OR 2.59; P<0.001). Other predictors of 90-day mortality were: shock or hypotension (OR 5.23; P<0.001), cancer (OR 3.57; P<0.001), presence of ≥1 concomitant disease (OR 2.01; P=0.001) and age>71 years (OR 1.5; P=0.063).


In-hospital major bleeding is a newly described strong independent predictor of both in-hospital and 90-day mortality in patients with objectively confirmed PE.


Antithrombotic treatment; Bleeding complications; Pulmonary embolism; Thrombolysis; Venous thromboembolism

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