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J Diabetes Res. 2013;2013:459821. doi: 10.1155/2013/459821. Epub 2013 Apr 22.

The effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on cardiovascular disease risks in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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  • 1Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA.



To review the current literature investigating the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD).


We conducted a search of PubMed and MEDLINE database, using the term DPP-4 inhibitor in combination with the following terms: metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, and CVD. We reviewed 100 relevant studies out of 227 articles, excluding single case reports, studies using animal models, and reports not written in English. We included 38 references in this review article.


The majority of the recent clinical studies have demonstrated that DPP-4 inhibitors have beneficial effects on cardiovascular (CV) system. These agents may have the potential to lower blood pressure, improve lipid profile and endothelial dysfunction, decrease the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response, and prevent myocardial injury.


DPP-4 inhibitors have some CV protective effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in addition to their antidiabetic actions. Long-term outcome clinical trials are under way to investigate the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitors on the elevated CV risks in patients with T2DM. Further investigation in a large cohort is warranted to assess the exact mechanisms of CV protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitors.

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