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Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Aug;57(3):398-406. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit288. Epub 2013 May 24.

Cryptosporidiosis among children in an endemic semiurban community in southern India: does a protected drinking water source decrease infection?

Author information

1
Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine whether or not a protected water supply (bottled drinking water) could prevent or delay cryptosporidial infections among children residing in an endemic community.

METHODS:

A total of 176 children residing in a semiurban slum area in southern India were enrolled preweaning and received either bottled (n = 90) or municipal (n = 86) drinking water based on residence in specific streets. Weekly surveillance visits were conducted until children reached their second birthday. Stool samples were collected every month and during diarrheal episodes, and were tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium species by polymerase chain reaction. Differences in the incidence of cryptosporidiosis between bottled and municipal water groups were compared using Poisson survival models, and a propensity score model was developed to adjust for the effect of potential confounders.

RESULTS:

A total of 186 episodes of cryptosporidiosis, mostly asymptomatic, were observed in 118 (67%) children during the follow-up period at a rate of 0.59 episodes per child-year. Diarrhea associated with Cryptosporidium species tended to be longer in duration and more severe. Stunting at 6 months was associated with a higher risk of cryptosporidiosis (rate ratio [RR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.91). A higher gastrointestinal disease burden was also seen in children with cryptosporidiosis. Drinking bottled water was not associated with a reduced risk of cryptosporidiosis (adjusted RR = 0.86; 95% CI, .60-1.23).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study documented a high burden of cryptosporidiosis among children in an endemic Indian slum community. The lack of association between drinking bottled water and cryptosporidiosis suggests possible spread from asymptomatically infected individuals involving multiple transmission pathways.

KEYWORDS:

India; children; cryptosporidiosis; drinking water; quasi-experimental study

PMID:
23709650
PMCID:
PMC3703109
DOI:
10.1093/cid/cit288
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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