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Respir Care. 2013 Jun;58(6):973-89. doi: 10.4187/respcare.02507.

Asynchrony and dyspnea.

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Division of Trauma and Critical Care, Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0558, USA.


Patient-ventilator synchrony and patient comfort are assumed to go hand in hand, yet few studies provide support for this common sense idea. In reality, synchrony between the patient and ventilator is complex and can be affected by the ventilator settings, type of ventilator, patient-ventilator interface, and sedation. Inspections of airway pressure and flow waveforms are reliable methods for detecting asynchrony, and automated detection seems accurate. A number of types of asynchronies have been defined, and asynchrony during invasive and noninvasive ventilation have different calling cards. There is a clear association between asynchrony, ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Whether these are cause and effect or simply associated remains to be determined.


asynchrony; dyspnea; noninvasive ventilation; respiratory muscles; synchrony

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