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J Bacteriol. 2013 Aug;195(15):3387-400. doi: 10.1128/JB.00214-13. Epub 2013 May 24.

Global control of GacA in secondary metabolism, primary metabolism, secretion systems, and motility in the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18.

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State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism and School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.


The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18 can produce a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites, including the antibiotics pyoluteorin (Plt) and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), hydrogen cyanide, and the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin. The antibiotic biosynthesis of M18 is coordinately controlled by multiple distinct regulatory pathways, of which the GacS/GacA system activates Plt biosynthesis but strongly downregulates PCA biosynthesis. Here, we investigated the global influence of a gacA mutation on the M18 transcriptome and related metabolic and physiological processes. Transcriptome profiling revealed that the transcript levels of 839 genes, which account for approximately 15% of the annotated genes in the M18 genome, were significantly influenced by the gacA mutation during the early stationary growth phase of M18. Most secondary metabolic gene clusters, such as pvd, pch, plt, amb, and hcn, were activated by GacA. The GacA regulon also included genes encoding extracellular enzymes and cytochrome oxidases. Interestingly, the primary metabolism involved in the assimilation and metabolism of phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen sources was also notably regulated by GacA. Another important category of the GacA regulon was secretion systems, including H1, H2, and H3 (type VI secretion systems [T6SSs]), Hxc (T2SS), and Has and Apr (T1SSs), and CupE and Tad pili. More remarkably, GacA inhibited swimming, swarming, and twitching motilities. Taken together, the Gac-initiated global regulation, which was mostly mediated through multiple regulatory systems or factors, was mainly involved in secondary and primary metabolism, secretion systems, motility, etc., contributing to ecological or nutritional competence, ion homeostasis, and biocontrol in M18.

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