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Trends Mol Med. 2013 Jul;19(7):418-27. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2013.04.004. Epub 2013 May 23.

Energy balance regulation by thyroid hormones at central level.

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Department of Physiology, CIMUS, University of Santiago de Compostela-Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Santiago de Compostela, 15782, Spain.


Classically, medical textbooks taught that most effects of thyroid hormones (THs) on energy homeostasis are directly exerted in peripheral tissues. However, current evidence is changing (and challenging) our perspective about the role of THs from a 'peripheral' to a 'central' vision, implying that they affect food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolism by acting, to a large extent, at the central level. Interestingly, effects of THs are interrelated with global energy sensors in the central nervous system (CNS), such as uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK; the 'AMPK-BAT axis'), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Here, we review what is currently known about THs and their regulation of energy balance and metabolism in both peripheral and central tissues.

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