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Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Oct;18(5):279-85. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2013.04.006. Epub 2013 May 23.

Neurodevelopmental outcome in children with congenital heart disease.

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Department of Paediatrics, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London, UK.


Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have multiple factors contributing toward their risk of later neurodevelopmental difficulties. With earlier diagnosis and improved survival rates, the management of CHD now includes the recognition of neurodevelopmental risks and optimisation of neurodevelopmental outcomes is emphasised. Neuroimaging studies have shown early differences in brain development for children with CHD, who then are vulnerable to additional brain injury in the perinatal period. For some children, complications and co-morbidities may further increase the risk of brain injury. Synthesis of multiple factors is necessary to estimate neurodevelopmental prognosis for an individual child. Long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of children with CHD is warranted for early identification of and intervention for difficulties.


Congenital heart defect; Infant; Magnetic resonance imaging; Neurodevelopment; Neurology; Newborn; Outcome

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