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Phys Rev Lett. 2013 May 10;110(19):197401. Epub 2013 May 6.

Metamaterial Huygens' surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets.

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Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122, USA.


Huygens' principle is a well-known concept in electromagnetics that dates back to 1690. Here, it is applied to develop designer surfaces that provide extreme control of electromagnetic wave fronts across electrically thin layers. These reflectionless surfaces, referred to as metamaterial Huygens' surfaces, provide new beam shaping, steering, and focusing capabilities. The metamaterial Huygens' surfaces are realized with two-dimensional arrays of polarizable particles that provide both electric and magnetic polarization currents to generate prescribed wave fronts. A straightforward design methodology is demonstrated and applied to develop a beam-refracting surface and a Gaussian-to-Bessel beam transformer. Metamaterial Huygens' surfaces could find a wide range of applications over the entire electromagnetic spectrum including single-surface lenses, polarization controlling devices, stealth technologies, and perfect absorbers.

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