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Clin Chest Med. 2013 Jun;34(2):205-16. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2013.01.006. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

HIV-associated bacterial pneumonia.

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Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa.


Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CAP) remains one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The risk of CAP increases as the CD4 cell count decreases. The common bacterial pathogens that cause CAP in HIV-infected persons are similar to those in HIV-uninfected individuals, with the pneumococcus being the most common pathogen. Prevention of CAP remains critical and necessitates a comprehensive approach addressing, among many other factors, cigarette smoking cessation strategies, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and immunization against those infections for which effective vaccinations are available.

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