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J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Jan;27(2):149-54. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2013.806896. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Poor pregnancy outcome in women with type 1 diabetes is predicted by elevated HbA1c and spikes of high glucose values in the third trimester.

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  • 1Departments of Endocrinology and Obstetrics, Center for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark .



To analyse data from a randomised, controlled study of prandial insulin aspart versus human insulin, both with NPH insulin, in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes for potential factors predicting poor pregnancy outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN/METHOD: Post hoc analysis including 91 subjects randomised prior to pregnancy with known outcome in early pregnancy and 259 subjects randomised prior to pregnancy/during pregnancy of <10 weeks' gestation with known late-pregnancy outcomes. Poor early-pregnancy outcomes included fetal loss <22 gestational weeks and/or congenital malformation (n=18). Poor late-pregnancy outcomes included: composite endpoint including pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and perinatal death (n=78); preterm delivery (n=63); and excessive fetal growth (n=88).


18 patients experienced a malformed/lost fetus in early pregnancy - none preceded by severe hypoglycaemia. Albuminuria in early pregnancy was a significant predictor of poor late-pregnancy outcome (composite endpoint; p=0.012). In the third trimester, elevated HbA1c, ≥ 1 plasma glucose (PG) measurement >11 mmol/L (198 mg/dL) and %PG values outside 3.9-7.0 mmol/L (70-126 mg/dL) were significant predictors of poor late-pregnancy outcomes (all p<0.05).


Elevated HbA1c, high glucose spikes and out-of-range %PG in the third trimester, and albuminuria in early pregnancy, are associated with poor late-pregnancy outcomes.

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